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Structured Query Language, or SQL, is one of the most widely used database query languages. Fluree supports a limited subset of SQL-92 syntax to query the flakes in a database.

Fluree SQL Restrictions

  • Fluree only supports SELECT-based SQL queries including the optional ALL or DISTINCT modifiers to query a database.
  • Fluree SQL keywords should either be in UPPERCASE or lowercase instead of Mixed cAse as the query parser will not recognize mixed case keywords.

Single Collection Queries

SELECT queries use either simplified short variables for queries involving a single collection, or qualified longer variables for queries involving more than one collection.

Short Form Variables

Queries involving a single collection can use short form variables. For example, to find all the known values of the person/firstName and person/lastName predicates for all subjects within the person collection, we can use the query:

SELECT firstName, lastName FROM person

Since this query only involves a single collection (as specified by the FROM clause), the SQL query engine infers the fully qualified predicate names from the list of variables in the SELECT clause.

Wildcard SELECT Clauses

Fluree SQL SELECT clauses can also include * wildcards to indicate that all the predicates for matched subjects should be returned instead of specific bound variables. For example, the query SELECT * FROM person will return all known predicate values for each subject within the person collection.

Referencing Subjects Directly

Variable names in Fluree SQL that represent the object of a flake are derived from the collection and predicate name corresponding to that object. To query for a subject id (_id predicate) directly however, you must use the special $ character in the query.

For example, to list the subject id and name for every subject within the "person" collection, you'd issue the following query:

SELECT $, name FROM person

WHERE Clauses

Fluree SQL WHERE clauses further restrict the flakes returned from a query to those that meet specified conditions. We can use boolean relations like <, >, and =, and we can combine those relations with the logical operations AND, OR, and NOT.

WHERE clauses in Fluree SQL can also specify ranges of values with BETWEEN, and set's of possible values with IN. WHERE clauses can also specify that only predicates which are not set should match with the NULL keyword.

WHERE Clause Examples

  1. SELECT * FROM person WHERE age = 18
  2. SELECT name, email FROM person WHERE age > 18 OR team = 'red'
  3. SELECT email FROM person WHERE age BETWEEN 18 AND 35
  4. SELECT name FROM person WHERE email IS NOT NULL

Queries with Multiple Collections (JOIN Queries)

You can use a JOIN query to specify multiple collections to query from, but there are some additional requirements. Variables must be fully qualified, and the query must have a join condition specified with the ON keyword. The ON keyword supports all the conditions that the WHERE keyword does.

Fully Qualified Variables

You have to use the fully qualified variables in JOIN queries by combining the collection name and predicate name with a "." in between. For example, the title predicate from the job collection would be job.title.

JOIN Condition

Fluree SQL uses ON clauses to specify the conditions for combining collections. These conditions usually specify how predicates from one collection should relate to predicates from another. Often, the JOIN condition is used to specify objects as references to subjects from another collection. In these cases, the subject placeholder ($), qualified by the collection, should be used.

For example, the following SQL query finds the name and job title for all subjects in a database holding a job:

SELECT, job.title FROM person JOIN job ON person.job = job.$

That Fluree SQL query is equivalent to the following FlureeQL query:

"select": [ "?personName" "?jobTitle" ],
"where": [
[ "?person" "person/job" "?job" ],
[ "?person" "person/name" "?personName" ],
[ "?job" "job/title" "?jobTitle" ]