Skip to main content

Fluree Basics

This section shows you how to create a simple schema and populate your ledger with sample data. All of the examples in the Query and Transact sections of the Documentation use the schema located here, so we recommend that you populate a ledger with this sample data.

If you are using the Admin UI, you can issue all of the code on this page directly on the 'FlureeQL' page of your user interface. Make sure that you select 'Transact'.

If you are connecting to Fluree via an the HTTP API, you can issue all these transactions to the /transact endpoint.

To view an example application that uses Fluree for data management, visit the to-do list generator repository.

New Ledger#

The first thing you will need to have is a ledger.

You can either create a new ledger through Dashboard page the Admin UI or via the HTTP API using the /new-db endpoint.


In Fluree, a schema is comprised of collections and predicates. While Fluree is a graph database, if you come from the relational world you can think of a collection sort of like a database table. Every time you want a new type of item in your ledger, you would create a new collection. For example, collections in your ledger might be person, company, or city.

Every collection has predicates. Predicates are analogous to relational database columns. The features of a collection are its predicates. For example, the person collection might have the following predicates: person/firstName, person/lastName, and person/age. The value of those predicates are called objects. You can read more about the subject-predicate-object model if you would like to get a deeper understanding of how RDF works in Fluree.

Many of the transactions on this page can be combined, but are separated for clarity.

Adding Collections#

The below transaction adds five new collections: person, chat, comment, artist, and movie. You can issue this transaction in your user interface. The syntax is explained in the Transact section. For now, we recommend you add this basic schema and walk through the documentation section-by-section.

[  {    "_id": "_collection",    "name": "person"  },  {    "_id": "_collection",    "name": "chat"  },  {    "_id": "_collection",    "name": "comment"  },  {    "_id": "_collection",    "name": "artist"  },  {    "_id": "_collection",    "name": "movie"  }]

Adding Predicates#

Schema predicates are similar to relational ledger columns. More information about predicates can be found in the Predicates section. For now, we recommend you add this basic schema and walk through the documentation section-by-section without concerning yourself too much with the syntax.

The transaction below creates the following predicates:

  • person/handle
  • person/fullName
  • person/follows
  • person/age
  • person/favNums
  • person/favArtists
  • person/favMovies
  • person/user
  • chat/message
  • chat/person
  • chat/instant
  • chat/comments
  • comment/message
  • comment/person
  • artist/name
  • movie/title
[  {    "_id": "_predicate",    "name": "person/handle",    "doc": "The person's unique handle",    "unique": true,    "type": "string"  },  {    "_id": "_predicate",    "name": "person/fullName",    "doc": "The person's full name.",    "type": "string",    "index": true  },  {    "_id": "_predicate",    "name": "person/age",    "doc": "The person's age in years",    "type": "int",    "index": true  },  {    "_id": "_predicate",    "name": "person/follows",    "doc": "Any persons this subject follows",    "type": "ref",    "restrictCollection": "person"  },  {    "_id": "_predicate",    "name": "person/favNums",    "doc": "The person's favorite numbers",    "type": "int",    "multi": true  },  {    "_id": "_predicate",    "name": "person/favArtists",    "doc": "The person's favorite artists",    "type": "ref",    "restrictCollection": "artist",    "multi": true  },  {    "_id": "_predicate",    "name": "person/favMovies",    "doc": "The person's favorite movies",    "type": "ref",    "restrictCollection": "movie",    "multi": true  },  {    "_id": "_predicate",    "name": "person/user",    "type": "ref",    "restrictCollection": "_user"  },  {    "_id": "_predicate",    "name": "chat/message",    "doc": "A chat message",    "type": "string",    "fullText": true  },  {    "_id": "_predicate",    "name": "chat/person",    "doc": "A reference to the person that created the message",    "type": "ref",    "restrictCollection": "person"  },  {    "_id": "_predicate",    "name": "chat/instant",    "doc": "The instant in time when this chat happened.",    "type": "instant",    "index": true  },  {    "_id": "_predicate",    "name": "chat/comments",    "doc": "A reference to comments about this message",    "type": "ref",    "component": true,    "multi": true,    "restrictCollection": "comment"  },  {    "_id": "_predicate",    "name": "comment/message",    "doc": "A comment message.",    "type": "string",    "fullText": true  },  {    "_id": "_predicate",    "name": "comment/person",    "doc": "A reference to the person that made the comment",    "type": "ref",    "restrictCollection": "person"  },  {    "_id": "_predicate",    "name": "artist/name",    "type": "string",    "unique": true  },  {    "_id": "_predicate",    "name": "movie/title",    "type": "string",    "fullText": true,    "unique": true  }]

Adding Sample Data#

You can issue the below transaction to add some sample data into your ledger. This transaction adds four users, three chats, four comments, three artists, and three movies.

[  {    "_id": "person$jdoe",    "handle": "jdoe",    "fullName": "Jane Doe",    "age": 25,    "favNums": [1223, 12, 98, 0, -2],    "favArtists": ["artist$1", "artist$2", "artist$3"],    "follows": "person$zsmith",    "favMovies": ["movie$1", "movie$2", "movie$3"]  },  {    "_id": "person$zsmith",    "handle": "zsmith",    "fullName": "Zach Smith",    "age": 63,    "favNums": [5, 645, 28, -1, 1223],    "favArtists": ["artist$1"],    "follows": "person$jdoe",    "favMovies": ["movie$2", "movie$3"]  },  {    "_id": "person$anguyen",    "handle": "anguyen",    "fullName": "Amy Nguyen",    "age": 34,    "favNums": [7, 98, 0, 2],    "favArtists": ["artist$2", "artist$3"],    "follows": "person$jdoe",    "favMovies": ["movie$3"]  },  {    "_id": "person$dsanchez",    "handle": "dsanchez",    "fullName": "Diana Sanchez",    "age": 70,    "favNums": [9, 1950],    "favArtists": ["artist$2"],    "follows": "person$anguyen",    "favMovies": ["movie$1", "movie$2", "movie$3"]  },  {    "_id": "chat",    "message": "Hi! I'm chat from Jane.",    "person": "person$jdoe",    "instant": "#(- (now) 20000)",    "comments": ["comment$zsmith", "comment$anguyen"]  },  {    "_id": "chat",    "message": "Hi! I'm a chat from Diana.",    "person": "person$dsanchez",    "instant": "#(- (now) 5000)",    "comments": ["comment$zsmithagain", "comment$anguyenagain"]  },  {    "_id": "chat",    "message": "Hi! I'm a chat from Zach.",    "person": "person$zsmith",    "instant": "#(now)"  },  {    "_id": "comment$zsmith",    "message": "Zsmith is responding!",    "person": "person$zsmith"  },  {    "_id": "comment$anguyen",    "message": "Hi Jane!",    "person": "person$anguyen"  },  {    "_id": "comment$zsmithagain",    "message": "Welcome Diana!",    "person": "person$zsmith"  },  {    "_id": "comment$anguyenagain",    "message": "Welcome Diana! This is Amy.",    "person": "person$anguyen"  },  {    "_id": "artist$1",    "name": "Gustav Klimt"  },  {    "_id": "artist$2",    "name": "Augusta Savage"  },  {    "_id": "artist$3",    "name": "Jean-Michel Basquiat"  },  {    "_id": "movie$1",    "title": "The Shawshank Redemption"  },  {    "_id": "movie$2",    "title": "Hot Fuzz"  },  {    "_id": "movie$3",    "title": "Gran Torino"  }]